Lying on the Chhotanagpur plateau, one of the oldest land formations in the world, Jharkhand is the 28th state of India. With nearly one-third of its total area under forest cover, Jharkhand is rightfully called the “land of forests”.
The lush green forests, rivers, and waterfalls of this primeval land are home to many kinds of spectacular flora and fauna. Age-old tribes are the main inhabit of this wonderful land, the state is also a hub of industry, commerce, and education. A treasure-trove of minerals comprises 40 percent of the mineral wealth of the country ranking first in the production of coal, mica, and iron and helps in making Jharkhand one of the richest state of India in natural resources.
History of Jharkhand is closely linked with 6th and 7th Century BC at the era of Mahabharata the “Kikat” Pradesh mentioned in the Rig Veda, was located in the Parasnath Hills in Giridih district, Jharkhand. This enormous wealth of past times, civilized existence, human societies and their cultural patterns, survive in caves and temples.
Over the centuries, Mughal and British have defined the Jharkhand in another way For the Mughals, who called it Kokrah, it contained mythical riches; for the mercantile British, it existed to be exploited and tamed- and divide into prosaically named ‘provinces’
According to some historians, there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappa people.
The tribes of Jharkhand have evolved a rich crafts tradition, each and every tribe have their own tradition and legacy of handicraft.
- Tussar Silk: Tussar Silk produced from larvae of several species of silkworms. It is used as base material for handicrafts, furnishing fabrics, and stitched apparel.
- Dokra: Dokra metal-craft uses the cire produce or ‘lost-wax’ method”
- Terracotta: Terracotta designing, having long been employed in temple architecture.
- Bamboo Craft: Flowerpot, fishing equipment, trays, baskets, furniture, and some decorative items made with bamboos.
- Tribal Paintings: Sohrai, Khovar, Paitkar, Jadupatua
Similarly, many other crafts and painting like Grass Weaving, Stone Carving, and Wood Carving are also very famous in Jharkhand.
The tribes of Jharkhand consist of 32 tribes inhabiting the Jharkhand state in India. The tribes in Jharkhand were originally classified on the basis of their cultural types by the Indian anthropologist, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi.:
- Hunter-gatherer type — Birhor, Korwa, Hill Kharia
- Shifting Agriculture — Sauria Paharia
- Simple artisans — Mahli, Lohra, Karmali, Chik Baraik
- Settled agriculturists — Santhal, Munda, Oraon, Ho, Bhumij, etc.
- People from various states have also been coming and making Ranchi as their home because of its peace and serenity.
Music & Dance
Music and dance are integral to Jharkhand’s tribal communities. Their music reflects their world and emerges from it this can be understood by a person who has stood under a star-ridden night sky in Jharkhand listening to the sound of a distant “Chhau” performance which is world famous and tourists from all over the world visit India during the “Chhau festival”.
Dances: Seraikela Chhau, Manbhum Chhau, Kharsawan Chhau, Mayurbhanj Chhau, Paika, Firkaal, Dasai, Rinjha, Janani Jhumar, Mardana Jhumar, Damkach, Kaathi, Dahar, Maghe Dance, Nachni, Mundari Dance, Barao, Chhangu Nritya.
Music: Nagara , Dhaak, Dhamsa, Dhol & Dholki, Mander, Ghanti, Peetta Ghant, Ghungru, Jhanj, Tohila, Kendri, Bhuang, Banam, Bansuri, Shehnai, Bheri, Singha
- Jharkhand was separated from Bihar on 15 November 2000, the birth anniversary of the legendary tribal revolutionary Birsa Munda. It is spread in the area of over 79,714 Square Kilometer with total population 32,988,134, in which male population is 16,930,315 and female population is 16,057,819.
- Altitude of Jharkhand is 651 meter above sea level. The Latitude of Jharkhand is 23.6101808 N. The Longitude of Jharkhand is 85.2799354 E.
- Languages Spoken in Jharkhand are Santhali, Mundari, Kurukh, Khortha, Nagpuria, Sadri, Khariya, Panchparagnia, Ho, Karmali, Hindi, Urdu, Bengali and some other local and secondary languages.
- Jharkhand is having a literacy rate of 67.6 %
- Climate is pleasant in Jharkhand: Cold-Weather Season takes place from November to February whereas Hot-Weather Season takes place from March to mid-June.
- State animal: Elephant
- State bird: Koel
- State Tree: Sal
- State Flower: Palash
The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. The State of Jharkhand is endowed with immense bio-diversity, moderate climate, rich cultural and historical heritage, religious places of worship and ethnic aspects to make the State the ultimate destination for tourists.
(Source: Wikipedia, http://jharkhandtourism.gov.in)